Montenegrian tumuluses

In the first half of the third millennium bc, someone built hundreds of tumuluses in Montenegro. These tumuluses are extremely important for our understanding of the expansion of the R1b people into Europe. 

I will here list all the articles related to this subject published so far. I still have few to publish so watch this space :)

In the late 2014 a team of archaeologists lead by Predrag Lutovac opened one of the 10 tumuluses found betwen the villages Frutak i Kujava near the town of Danilovgrad in Montenegro. What they have found under the earth mound is very very interesting and can rewrite the history of the European Bronze Age. 

You can read more here:

Official history tells us that In the Early Bronze Age (the late 3rd millennium BC) Ireland was one of the most important, if not the most important centres of gold working in Europe. Gold lunulae like the one on the picture were made by the Irish artisans from gold found in the Irish streams and exported throughout Europe. However, the latest scientific data is painting a different picture, one which is in strange correspondence with the "pseudo histories" found in the old Irish annals.

You can read more here:

Several early Bronze age tumulus graves have been discovered and excavated in Montenegro in last 10 years. They are concentrated in the fertile Zeta and Bojana valleys, both of which are linked to the Skadar lake. I already wrote about the Bjelopavlići tumulus. This time I will write about the tumulus known as "Mogila na rake" or "Spič tumulus" which was discovered in 2011. This is another dolmen cist tumulus like Bjelopavlići tumulus. But this tumulus is even older and was dated to 2700 BC. Inside the dolmen cist the archaeologists have found a bowl which could prove to be very important for our understanding of the spread of metallurgy to the Atlantic Europe.

You can read more here:

Judging by the grave goods found in the Mala Gruda tumulus, ceramic dishes, golden lock rings, golden dagger and a silver axe, the person buried in this tumulus was a very important individual. This person was a warrior but I believe that he was not an ordinary warrior. The weapons buried with him, if we can judge it by the material from which these weapons were made, were not battle weapons but ceremonial weapons. Was this person a warrior king, or a warrior priest, or both? What ever the exact role was that the person buried in the Mala Gruda tumulus played in his life, he was definitely a person of a great wealth and importance. The quality of the metal artifacts found in the grave is exceptional and something that could have been afforded by a very few. 

While all the artifacts found in the tumulus are exceptional, one of them, the silver axe, can prove to be so important that it could become one of the most important early bronze age artifacts ever found. For two reasons. Firstly the new dating of this axe opens some interesting questions about our understanding the chronology of the distribution of the shaft hole axes in the Balkans. Secondly the new dating of this axe opens some very interesting questions about our understanding of the Early Bronze Age Irish and British history and our understanding of the origin and identity of the Beaker people. 

You can read more here:

In my series of articles about Late Copper - Early Bronze age tumuluses from Montenegro, I already talked about Bjelopavlići tumulus, Mogila na Rake tumulus and Mala and Velika Gruda tumuluses. In this post I will talk about Gruda Boljevića tumulus.

Gruda Boljevića tumulus is one of the most interesting and most important archaeological sites of the Montenegrin Late Copper - Early Bronze age. It is also probably one of the most important archaeological sites found recently in Europe. 

The reason why I believe that this tumulus is so important, is because it shows that the dolmen building, golden cross disc making culture which developed in Montenegro in the first half of the third millennium BC, has its direct cultural roots in Yamna culture of the Black Sea steppe. Why is this important? Because this is the last and most important piece of evidence which confirms that the Irish annals contain not pseudo histories, but real histories which talk about events that happened in the 3rd millennium BC...

You can find out here:

The flood of Parholon

"Storm Frank causing havoc across the country"

This is a headline form one of the Irish newspapers. Storm Frank is the sixth to hit Ireland since the start of the winter. Huge areas or arable land are under water an so are thousands of houses in towns close to coast, rivers and lakes. 

I feel so sorry for all the poor people who are currently being literally flooded out of their houses. And this is not the first year that Ireland has been experiencing such bad weather. I think that this is now third or fourth winter in a row that Ireland has been battered by storms and if it continues like this, a lot of areas in Ireland will become unsuitable for human habitation and will have to be evacuated. And there is very little anyone can do....

But this is not the first time in the Irish history that Ireland was hit by massive floods. One of them was so bad that it wiped out the entire human population of Ireland. At least this is what the Irish annals tell us. They say that the first race that lived in Ireland were Fomorians. Then the flood came. And Ireland was empty for almost three hundred years. Then, after the flood, came the people of Partholón.

So was this flood that the Irish annals talking about a local Irish flood for the "biblical" global flood? And do we have any proof that any major flood happened in Ireland around the time when Partholon and his people were said to have lived there?

You can read more about this here:

The development of Copper Age tumulus in the territory of Montenegro went through several stages during the first half of the 3rd millennium BC. During this period the dead were literally risen from the ground...

You can read more about this here:

Was there an immigration from Ireland to Montenegro at the beginning of the 3rd millennium BC? And is it possible that the cultural process of "raising" of burial cists from the ground, which happened in Montenegrian tumuluses in the first half of the 3rd millennium BC was influenced by these Irish immigrants? 

And the reason why I am asking this question are Linkardstown cist burials.a

You can read more about them here:

As I explained in one of my previous posts, the development of Copper Age tumulus in the territory of Montenegro went through several stages during the first half of the 3rd millennium BC eventually producing free standing dolmen cist covered with curbed multilayered earth - stone tumulus.

But this was not the only type of stone cist burials in Montenegro at that time. The above type of burial in massive stone cists under earth tumuluses was used in the valleys and fertile lowlands. In the mountainous regions of Montenegro a more typical seems to have been burial in massive stone cists placed in the centers of artificial stone hills (cairns) which were surrounded with stone rings (curbs).

What is interesting is that we find exactly the same type of burial in Britain, dated to the early to middle Bronze Age.

So it seems that here we have another example of a cultural development which first appeared in the Balkans Montenegro during the late Copper Age, early Bronze Age and which was then brought to the British Isles during the early Bronze Age. Is this another sign of a migration from Montenegro to Britain during the mid 3rd millennium BC? I think it is.

You can read more about the ring cairns here:

1 comment:

  1. Interesting article. My Haplogroup DNA results show a shared SNP in the Leinster region of Ireland with other males from 1150ce and the next known SNP marker of a common male ancestor around 3350bce based in Montenegro. May just be a coincidence but having read the above article it’s fascinating that there is a ‘migration’ pathway between Montenegro and Ireland albeit within a 4000 year timeframe. Naturally it may just be purely random.