These collars are commonly thought of being jewellery but it is possible that they were a type of a neck armour. These are depiction of warriors from Tiryns Peloponnese (c. 1500-1200 BC). Bronze statuettes of warrior from Sardinia Italy (c. 1900 BC). Both wearing ring neck amour.
From Greek age of Bronze.
Pomeranian culture is also known as face urn culture. Reason for that is that they put ashes of the deceased in urns with sculpted faces, possibly resembling the faces of the deceased.
Now interestingly, at the same time, or a bit earlier (they first appear during the 8th centuries BC. ) in Italy, Etruscans also made urns with faces.
I love the more stylised design of the older versions of these Etruscan face urns, like these 4.
One of the most striking examples, to me anyway, is this one. It could have been made in 1930s...
At the same time when both people in Etruria and in South Baltic made face urns, the people in both places also made house urns.
The House Urns culture was an early Iron Age culture of the 7th century BC in central Germany, in the Region between Harz Mountains and the junction of river Saale to river Elbe. It was the western periphery of the bronze and Iron Age Lusatian culture.
At the same time (actually slightly earlier) in Italy, we find Villanova culture, (Early Etruscan culture) which also made house shaped urns
The most elaborate house urns made in Italy come from the Etruscan city of Vulci and date to the 9th century BC. They are made of bronze.
One of my favourite Etruscan house urns is this one, today kept in Vatican museum. Some people will find symbols adorning this urn interesting. I particularly like this one:
Etruscans loved amber, and amber comes from South Baltic. So the trade connection between the two places definitively existed during the time when these two urn traditions developed in both Italy and South Baltic.
Villanovans, early Etruscans, were master amber carvers
What is interesting is that both urn traditions are developed earlier and to the much higher level in Etruria. This points to the corresponding North European traditions being cultural exports from Etruria.
Cultural exports brought along the amber road? The shortest route directly connects these two cultural areas.
These cultural traits are not present along the whole length of the Amber Road. Does this indicate the presence of the Etruscan settlers in the South Baltic area? Maybe to control the amber trade?
The encircled area is the area later inhabited by the Western Slavs, specifically Sorbs...
Well we know that Slavs, just like all the other Europeans, are a mix of many different peoples who who settled in Central Europe over the millenniums. We can see this from their genes. They are predominantly R1a and I2a (thoutght to be proto Slavic), but also include many other haplogroups. Serbs are particularly genetically heterogenous. That Slavs are not a homogenous population was noted by many people in the past:
"The remnant at the present time of the dark-complexioned Wends of Saxony, who called themselves Sorbs, shows that there must have been some old Wendish tribe of similar complexion, from which they are descended. " from “Origin of the Anglo – Saxon race” is a book published in 1906 by Thomas William Shore
Probably all just a coincidence...